Non-Adjustable Shock Absorber Design Overview

Single Orifice Shock Absorbers

Constant orifice area damping(dashpot) provides the largest shock force at the beginning of the stroke when impact velocity is highest. These shock absorbers provide high-energy absorption in a small, economical design.

The internal structure of a single orifice shock absorber is shown above. When a force is applied to the piston rod, the check ball is seated and the valve remains closed. Oil is forced through the orifice, creating internal pressure allowing smooth, controlled deceleration of the moving load. When the load is removed, the compressed coil spring moves to reposition the piston head, the check ball unseats, opening the valve that permits rapid return of the piston head rod to the original extended position.

Non-Adjustable Single-Orifice Shock Absorber Curve

The closed cellular foam accumulator is compressed by the oil during the stroke, compensating for fluid displaced by the piston rod during compression. Without the fluid displacement volume provided by the foam accumulator, the closed system would be hydraulically locked. 

Single-orifice shock absorbers provide constant orifice area (dashpot) damping.

Multiple Orifice Shock Absorbers

Self-compensating damping maintains acceptable deceleration with conventional type damping characteristics. Self-compensating shock absorbers operate over a wide range of weights and velocities. These shock absorbers are well suited for high drive force, low velocity applications, and where energy conditions may change. Curve A shows the shock force vs. stroke curve of a self-compensating shock absorber impacted with a low velocity and high drive force. Curve B shows the shock force vs. stroke curve of a self-compensating shock absorber impacted with a high velocity and low drive force.

The design of a multi-orifice shock absorber features a double cylinder arrangement with space between the concentric shock tube and cylinder, and a series of orifice holes drilled down the length of the shock tube wall. During piston movement, the check ring is seated and oil is forced through the orifices in the shock tube wall, into the closed cellular foam accumulator and behind the piston head. 

Multiple Orifice Non-Adjustable Shock Absorbers

As the piston head moves it closes off orifice holes, thus reducing the available orifice area in proportion to the velocity. After the load is removed the coil spring pushes the piston rod outward. This unseats the check ring and permits the oil to flow from the accumulator and across the piston head, back into the shock tube. This allows quick repositioning for the next impact. Low Pressure multiple orifice shock absorbers can provide progressive or self-compensating damping, depending on the impact conditions.